Places with bad names-1

There are places which have names which may sound funny or offensive in other languages. Probably the most famous one is this:

Fucking, Austria

More about this tiny place with a population of around 100:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fucking,_Austria

Obviously this name is not particularly significant to German speakers, but is a source of amusement to English speakers, especially Brits.

The Brits have something similar in Surrey, but not in the same class:

Dorking, England

While “dork” is not a verb, it is a noun in American English:

https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Dork 

A standard sign in the US (especially in college classrooms) in “No food and drinks”. Someone at Stanford had put up a realistic sign stating “No freaks and dorks” which the faculty chose to leave untouched.

There was a controversial judge named Robert Bork who was nominated by President Reagan to the Supreme Court, but his nomination was rejected by the US Senate in 1987. While his name rhymes with “Dork”, the word predates him.

This town is somewhat larger than its Austrian counterpart. It is perhaps appropriate that it is famous for poultry:

Dorking Cock

More on the general topic of places with unusual names:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_names_considered_unusual

That is a bit exhaustive and lengthy, but a shorter one is:

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/united-kingdom/galleries/Britains-silliest-place-names/

This topic is indeed worthy of a doctoral dissertation.

Next we will take up a few such cases in India.

 

IPL League matches 2018-what lies ahead

At the time of writing (after the RR-SRH match on 29/4), when 28 of the 56 league matches were over the points table was:

IPL 2018 halfway

Now we look at the final points table for 2015, 2016 and 2017:

2015:

2015 IPL League

2016:

2016 IPL league table

2017:

2017 IPL League table

The main concern now is to predict who will be in the last four. We see that in the three seasons a team needed 16 points to qualify. This would correspond to 8 wins, or 7 wins and two no-results. Once you are in the last four it is even more of a lottery than in “normal” tournaments such as the World Cup.

A quick look at the half-time table for 2018 shows that the leader SRH has played 8 matches and have 12 points. To just scrape through they need just 2 wins in 6 matches.

Second-placed CSK have 7 matches and 10 points. They need 3 wins in 7 matches.

At the bottom end, DD have 7 matches and 4 points. They need 6 wins from 7 matches. But if you look at the history of the IPL, probably comebacks like this have happened on rare occasions.

Next to the bottom there is RCB with 6 matches and 4 points. They need 6 wins from 8 matches.

More renamed stations (Revised Feb 2019)

We have earlier covered stations which have been recently renamed in Karnataka. Here we take up a few more which have been renamed in the recent past, as well as those which were supposed to be renamed but have so far not been changed.

Starting with Sunam in Punjab, named after one of its famous sons:

Farah Town (between Mathura and Agra) now appears in railway databases as Deen Dayal Dham. Pandit DDU was born in that area.

Farah TownDeen Dayal Dham

While the renaming of this small station did not attract much attention in the media, this one certainly did as it is a major junction:

Similarly, Gurgaon is now officially Gurugram but the Railways have not made any changes yet.

Mhow has been renamed:

Mhow was the birthplace of Dr. Ambedkar. His family was originally from Maharashtra, but his father was serving in the armed forces at Mhow.

And yet another one near Bhopal (thanks to the photographer who furnished this two-in -one picture).

Bairagarh and successor

This station (SHRN) has now gained importance due to a Bhopal bypass from Nishatpura yard (north of Bhopal Jn) to this station on the west towards Ujjain, Indore and Nagda. It therefore acts as a proxy for Bhopal.

Robertsganj in eastern UP was renamed Sonebhadra.

Near Kanpur we have Panki renamed Panki Dham:

Jagadhri (between Saharanpur and Ambala) has become Yamuna Nagar-Jagadhri. This has some logic as Yamunanagar is the larger and better known of the two.

Jagadhri Workshop station remains unchanged.

Malkhedi was renamed Bina Malkhedi, after a new bypass line caused many long-distance trains to skip Bina and stop at this station instead:

A similar case is seen in the bypass station of Chheoki, which has become Allahabad Chheoki to reduce confusion among passengers. However, unlike Bina Malkhedi, Chheoki was there since British times and was used by a limited number of trains such as the Imperial Mail. It was not used for a long time and started reappearing in timetables from the 2000s.

From Mumbai we have:

Elsewhere, a new station was supposed to be named Oshiwara. At the last moment it was changed to:

Ram Mandir station

Another change was first reported in 2009 but has not occurred yet. Silchar was to be renamed  Bhasa Shahid Silchar. It remains as it is:

Silchar station

A nice new building has come up recently:

Silchar exterior

However someone has put this little sign near the station entrance. So far it has not been disturbed:

Silchar Bhasa Shahid

The story behind this would be known to anyone familiar with the history of Cachar and adjoining districts.

 

The importance of Sheikhupura

The city of Sheikhupura in Pakistan was in the news recently:

https://www.geo.tv/latest/192419-sikh-pilgrim-who-went-missing-in-pakistan-found-from-sheikhupura

There is a happy ending as he was promptly deported to India a few days later.

Sheikhupura is on the route from the Atari/Wagah border to Nankana Saheb, where special trains from India run occasionally for the benefit of Sikh pilgrims. The main stations on the way are Lahore and Qila Sheikhupura:

Qila Sheikhupura

There is a video on Youtube produced by a passenger on of the pilgrim trains, showing it passing through these stations:

Nankana Saheb is not really a major railway station. Timetables of the 1930s and 1940s show it as a wayside station served by two pairs of passenger trains between Lahore and Shorkot Road (now Shorkot Cantt). In recent years an express has started running on this route which stops at Nankana Saheb and several other stations.

Those who follow cricket closely would remember that Sheikhupura had staged two Test matches and two ODIs in the 1990s. The first Test was against Zimbabwe in 1996, where Wasim Akram’s record of 12 6s in his 257 not out is still a world record for an innings. In fact, it was a match record until RG Sharma hit 13 sixes in a match in 2019.

With Saqlain Mushtaq (79) he put on 313 for the 8th wicket which was the new Test record.

This record was surpassed by Trott (184) and Broad (169)’s partnership of 332 against Pakistan at Lord’s in 2010. Given the later disclosures of various tricks being played by Salman Butt and his friends, it is quite likely that they were “allowed” to run up large scores.

In that match in 1996 Paul Strang scored a century and took a five-for. He remains the only one from Zimbabwe to achieve this in a Test.

In 1997 this venue hosted another Test against South Africa. Nothing much happened as 3 days were washed out.

While Test matches did not return here, the people of Sheikhupura were more fortunate than their neighbors in Gujranwala. The one Test there (against Sri Lanka) in 1991 saw only one day of play before the weather played spoilsport. There are several other venues in India and Pakistan which have hosted only one Test so far.

Sheikhupura also features in jokes where it is supposed to be the home of Sheikh Pir, who wrote the plays attributed to Shakespeare. Tamilians disagree as they say the plays were written by their scholar Seshappa Iyer.

There is a lesser-known Sheikhpura in Bihar state in India, on the Gaya-Kiul route:

Sheikhpura (Bihar)

US Presidents: some notes on longevity

First, a picture taken on the occasion of Barbara Bush’s funeral. Note the caustic comments of the writer regarding the prominent absentee:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/trump-golfed-instead-of-going-to-barbara-bushs-funeral-that-was-a-good-thing/2018/04/23/a5930974-4731-11e8-8b5a-3b1697adcc2a_story.html?utm_term=.587b697c623c

Former President Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalyn were not present either, though that is understandable as they are both above 90.

Barbara Bush was not, however, the longest lived First Lady. She lived to be 92 years 10 months. “Lady Bird” Johnson (94/7), Nancy Reagan (93/8) and Betty Ford (93/3) lived longer.

She was one of two First Ladies whose son became President, and the only one to see her son become President (in 2001). Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams (President in 1797-1801) passed away in 1818 before her son John Q Adams became President in 1825.

The marriage of George Bush Sr and Barbara was the longest-lasting marriage of an US President, at 73 years and 3 months. Next in line are the Carters, married in July 1946 and currently on 71 years 9 months. Rosalyn Carter (born August 1927) is now on 90 years 8 months.

George Bush senior (born June 1924) is the longest-living President at 93 years and 10 months. Next in line is Jimmy Carter (born October 1924), presently on 93 years 7 months.

Bush reached this record only in November 2017 when he crossed the record of Gerald Ford (93 years 5 months, 1913-2006). He is also the last President to have served in World War 2, in a long line going back to JFK and Eisenhower.

An odd coincidence is that 4 successive Presidents (Ford, 1974-1977; Carter, 1977-81, Reagan, 1981-89 and Bush Sr, 1989-93) all celebrated their 93rd birthdays.

Carter has lived longest after his presidential term, which ended in January 1981. He is thus holding the record at 38 years 5 months in June 2019. Next was Herbert Hoover (President in 1929-33) who survived 31 years and 8 months until his death in October 1964.

An older post on similar topics: https://abn397.wordpress.com/2015/01/14/present-and-past-us-presidents/

Update: The information given above was correct up to April 24, 2018. Since then, George Bush Sr passed away on Nov 30, 2018 and more recently Jimmy Carter became the longest living President, having been born on Oct 1, 1924.

If Jimmy and Rosalyn Carter are still living in October 2019, theirs will be the longest-lasting marriage of an US President at 73 years 3 months. And he will be the first US President to celebrate his 95th birthday.

A closer look at centuries in fourth innings of Tests

Note: All data correct as of April 15, 2018. The Test involving the ICC XI in 2005 is excluded.

We first look at the best averages in the fourth innings:

4th innings averages

Boycott, Gavaskar and Hobbs top this table though there is very little difference between their averages.

We now look at those who scored the most centuries in the fourth  innings (3 and above):

Century in fourth innings

Younis Khan leads with 5 centuries, followed by Ponting, Gavaskar, GC Smith and Sarwan with 4. Bradman is also here with 3. Among current players, there is only Williamson with 3.

Now let see who disliked the fourth innings. These players made the most centuries (20 and above) without ever making one in the fourth innings:

SR Waugh (32), Mohammad Yousuf (24), SPD Smith and V Sehwag (23 each), IR Bell and MC Cowdrey (22 each), DC Boon (21) and G Kirsten (21). Of these only Smith may get a chance to change these figures.

Conversely, there are those who love batting in the fourth innings. Apart from Younis Khan and his companions at the top of the table, there are those who scored all their centuries in the fourth innings:

There are several who scored their only century in the 4th innings. The only current player is Shan Masood. And there is only one who scored his only 2 centuries in the 4th innings: W Watson (Eng) of the 1950s. Honourable mention to JB Stollmeyer (2 out his 4 centuries came in the fourth innings).

So we conclude that the 4th innings is indeed the most difficult innings to score in. Bowlers may have a different opinion about the 4th innings.

 

A closer look at centuries in third innings of Tests

Note: All data correct as of April 15, 2018. The Test involving the ICC XI in 2005 is excluded.

We first look at the best averages in the third innings:

3rd innings averages

Bradman does not figure here, as he and his team-mates probably scored enough in the first and second innings so that they did not have to bat much in the third and fourth innings. So we have May, Kallis and Compton at the top of this table. There are also Amla and Azhar Ali from current players.

We now look at those who scored the most centuries in the third innings (5 and above):

Century in third innings

Sangakkara and Cook lead with 12, followed by Tendulkar, Kallis and Hayden with 10. Perhaps Cook will add to his tally.

Now let see who disliked the third innings. These players made the most centuries without ever making one in the third innings:

SC Ganguly has the most (16) followed by AG Prince, M Vijay and TW Graveney with 11 each. Possibly Vijay, like Cook mentioned above, will be able to change his status.

Conversely, there are those who love batting in the third innings. Apart from May and his companions at the top of the table, there are those who scored all their centuries in the third innings:

R Subba Row (3). followed by ADR Campbell, GC White and JDB Robertson with 2 each.

Also WW Armstrong scored 5 of his 6 centuries in the third innings (which can be seen in the bottom of the above table).

To be continued with the fourth innings.

 

A closer look at centuries in second innings of Tests

Note: All data correct as of April 15, 2018. The Test involving the ICC XI in 2005 is excluded.

We first look at the best averages in second innings:

2nd innings averages

Bradman is still at the top, with Kohli his nearest rival. SPD Smith, KS Williamson and JE Root are also among the current players who have done best in the second innings.

And those who scored the most centuries in the second innings (9 and above):

Century in second innings

Tendulkar leads with 18, followed by Dravid and M Jayawardene (15 each) and the other long-haul men Kallis and Ponting with 14 each.

Now let see who disliked the second innings. These players made the most centuries without ever making one in the second innings:

G Gambhir, KJ Hughes and SP Fleming all scored a total of 9 centuries without any in the second innings.

Next is F du Plessis with 8. He may add to this.

Conversely, there are those who love batting in the second innings. Apart from Tendulkar and his companions at the top of the table, there are those who scored all their centuries in the second innings:

MJ Horne (NZ) and RT Simpson(Eng) scored all their 4 centuries in the second innings.

BA Edgar (NZ), Qasim Umar (Pak) and RG Sharma (Ind) similarly scored all their 3 centuries in the second innings.

Honourable mention to NCL O’Neill who scored 5 of his 6 centuries in the second innings.

To be continued with the third and fourth innings.

A closer look at centuries in first innings of Tests

Note: All data correct as of April 15, 2018. The Test involving the ICC XI in 2005 is excluded.

We first look at the best averages in first innings:

1st innings averages

And those who scored the most centuries in the first innings (9 and above):

Centuries in first innings

Ponting is just ahead of the overall leader in centuries as well as the second-placed.

Now let see who disliked the first innings. These players made the most centuries without ever making one in the first innings:

AD Mathews (8)

followed by Taufeeq Umar (7), WW Armstrong (6) and MG Burgess (5).

Mathews is still playing Tests so he may improve (?) on his record.

Conversely, there are those who love batting in the first innings. Apart from Ponting and his companions at the top of the table, there are those who scored all their centuries in the first innings:

JM Bairstow (5) He reached this mark in the last Test he played which was against New Zealand in 2018.

Next are AF Rae and Wasim Raja with 4.

Special mention to SP Fleming (8 out of 9 centuries in the first innings) and KC Wessels (5/6).

The second, third and fourth innings will follow.

 

 

More on Test centuries in different innings

We first look at this chart of leading century-makers in Tests:

25 and more centuries

Most of the leading century makers such as Tendulkar, Kallis and Ponting have scored centuries in all 4 innings, though Steve Waugh made 32 centuries without any in the 4th innings. You can see that most of those in the above table did not do too well in the 3rd and 4th innings, though there are exceptions such as Sangakkara. Let us see if there are any who did equally well in all 4 innings. One has to go quite low down the table to find someone who scored one century in each innings (1111). The only such player was the South African Alan Melville. What is more odd is that these 4 centuries were in successive innings (though World War 2 intervened between the first and the second centuries)

You can see the full details here: http://stats.espncricinfo.com/ci/content/records/282968.html

When he returned to Test cricket in 1947 he scored centuries in both innings, then one more and no other century in his career. He thus equaled the record of 4 centuries in successive innings set by JH Fingleton. Soon afterwards, Weekes surpassed this with 5 and many years later Dravid also made 4 in successive innings.

If we go to those who scored 8 centuries, there is no one with an equitable 2222. The nearest approach would be by B Mitchell (SA) with 2321, CC Hunte 2312 and at a stretch DM Bravo (1331).

For those with 12 centuries, the closest are: AI Kallicharan (3531), AR Morris (5322), Ijaz Ahmed (3522) and JG Wright (4431). Also note Hanif Mohammad and JH Edrich with 4440.

16 centuries: H Sutcliffe (6433)

20 centuries: GA Gooch (7373), ME Waugh (7922), PA de Silva (5771)

24 centuries: GS Chappell (7-11-5-1), IVA Richards (8-10-4-2)

28 centuries: HM Amla (12-6-9-1)

32 centuries: AN Cook (8-10-12-2)

36 centuries: R Dravid is the only one, with a rather asymmetric 15-15-5-1.

Apollo 13 and the age of Aquarius

Today is the anniversary of Apollo 13’s return to earth on April 17, 1970. You may have seen the 1995 movie, but if you have forgotten the details you can refresh your memory here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13

The gist of the story is that an explosion crippled the power supply on the “Command and Service Module” named Odyssey. To survive and return to Earth an elaborate patch was done to use the fuel supplies on the lunar module named “Aquarius”.

At that time there was a popular musical called “Hair”-popular partly because it featured brief scenes of nudity-which was a big thing in 1969. One of the popular songs was “The Age of Aquarius”, which you can listen to here:

When the astronauts were picked up and safely landed on an US Navy carrier, it was but appropriate that the band played “The Age of Aquarius”.

Like other popular songs, it gets due coverage in Wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquarius/Let_the_Sunshine_In

The lyrics given in the video above are slightly wrong, but you can see the correct lyrics here:  https://www.lyricsondemand.com/soundtracks/h/hairlyrics/aquariuslyrics.html

And a video with better visuals (but without lyrics):

The bit about “astrological gibberish” is particularly amusing:

“Astrologer Neil Spencer denounced the lyrics as “astrological gibberish”, noting that Jupiter forms an astrological aspect with Mars several times a year and the moon is in the 7th House for two hours every day. These lines are considered by many to be merely poetic license, though some people take them literally.”

In fact, the opening lines of the song feature in an episode of Carl Sagan’s “Cosmos” where he is debunking astrology.

And in recent times, it has given rise to memes like this:

https://me.me/i/you-know-son-this-is-the-dawning-of-the-age-21401378

and this: http://www.bunchacunce.org/2016/08/the-awning-of-the-cage-of-asparagus/

South Asian maps of 1910

Anyone dabbling in the geography of the past should be aware of the legendary Perry-Castaneda collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Unlike other institutions of this type, they have made an effort to put up much of their material online for anyone to see without a fee.

The general introduction: https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/

The Asian section: http://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/asia.html

There is a lot of material of interest to those who are interested in seeing what South Asia was like in the past. For the moment, we take up the maps taken from the Baedeker guide to India and the neighborhood published in 1914:

http://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/baedeker_indien_1914.html

Baedeker largely concentrated on Europe, but did bring out this guide in 1914 (just before the Great War). The Murray handbooks were more specialized works concentrating on India, Burma and Ceylon in greater detail.

This 1914 guide seems to have been in German, though we can make use of the maps captioned in English.

Though this guidebook is dated 1914, it does show some things which had ceased to exist by 1910 and thus it may be a little out of date. But it can be taken as accurate for approximately 1905-1910. I am concentrating on the railway-related material showing how some lines and stations in undivided India have changed from c.1910 to today.

While clicking on the above link, you get a list of maps. Click on the one you are interested in. I have added comments wherever I could:

Aden: Included as it was governed from India from 1839 to 1937. Today it is part of Yemen. Also, most passenger and cargo ships going from Europe to South Asia stopped there. This continued well into the 1960s. There was even a small railway system there under the NWR which functioned from 1916 to 1929, so it does not appear here.

Many South Asians worked there even after it was detached from India. For instance, Dhirubhai Ambani spent most of the 1950s working at a petrol station there. Mukesh was born there, though Anil was not.

Agra: this had the most complicated layout for any South Asian city of its size, particularly as several railway companies were involved. “Jail station” seems to be the present Billochpura. And one wonders if it was then possible to see the Taj Mahal on the north-south route. You still get a good view while approaching Agra Fort from the east, which most trains from eastern India do.

Ahmedabad: Note Ellisbridge station which was in the timetable up to the 1940s. It is now known as Gandhigram, which briefly served as a metre gauge terminus in recent years.

Bangalore: Much simpler than the present.

Bei Dakka: The Peshawar-Kabul route as of then. The railway ended at Jamrud which was reached in 1901. The Nowshera-Dargai narrow gauge line is complete. The road to Landi Kotal and thence to Dakka (then an important Afghan fort) and Jalalabad can be seen, though the India-Afghanistan border does not seem to be marked. We will return to another map of the Peshawar area shortly.

It can be seen that Parachinar is the Pakistani town closest to Kabul (by air).

Benares: the present Varanasi Jn was Benares Cantt Jn until the 1940s, if not longer. Locals still refer it to Cantt station. Varanasi City was an insignificant station on the metre gauge, and has not gained much today even after gauge conversion. Manduadih has now become the main secondary terminus.

Bombay: Note the terminus at Colaba. All long-distance and local trains of the BBCI used to start from there. It was even electrified for the local trains in the 1920s. By 1930 Bombay Central was opened for long-distance services, locals started from Churchgate and the Railways gained some valuable real estate. Housing for railway officers now stands on the area where Colaba station stood.

The harbour branch had not started from the VT end, and Mazagon station was replaced by Sandhurst Road station a little south of it a few years after the map was created. The high-level station and the harbour branch came up along with electrification in the 1920s.

Part of the Bombay Port lines can be seen.

Calcutta: Howrah and Shalimar are seen on the west bank of the Hooghly. We also see the Calcutta Port lines which are now part of the Circular line.

These lines run along the east bank to Chitpur and Sealdah as well, but were not used for regular passenger services until the end of the 20th century.

Environs of Delhi: No New Delhi station, as New Delhi did not exist then. Nizamuddin station is there, as well as Kilokri station between Nizamuddin and Okhla which vanished from the timetables long ago. It used to be the border betwen the GIPR and NWR. Much later Tuglakhabad became the border between NR and CR, while today Palwal is the border betwen NR and NCR.

The alignment between Ajmeri Gate (near New Delhi) and Tuglakhabad has changed considerably. In the old map the line ran west of Purana Qila and Humayun’s Tomb. Now it runs to the east of these landmarks. Kilokri has now vanished and a new Nizamuddin has now come up. The old Nizamuddin lies somewhere in Nizamuddin West. Some say it corresponds to part of the Delhi Golf Club.

(Thanks to Jishnu Mukerji for filling in some of these details about Delhi).

Delhi (Modern): A misnomer as not much modernisation had occurred when the map was made, which must have been before the capital moved there in 1911. Note Garstin Bastion which gave its name to the infamous GB Road. That is now officially called Swami Shraddanand Marg.

Fathpur Sikri: No railway here, as the Agra-Bayana section was opened in 1913.

Gwalior: The narrow gauge lines to Shivpuri (Sipri), Sheopur Kalan and Bhind can be seen. They can be distinguished from the main BG line which has a thicker marking.

Hyderabad: The network in this section has hardly changed. The Husain Sagar triangle is in place.

Jaipur: Hardly any railway to be seen. The Delhi-Ahmedabad line is in place. Then, as now, you have to go south from Jaipur station and later turn north to reach Delhi and Agra.

Khaibar Pass: The terminus has been at Jamrud since 1901, so the future Khyber Railway actually started from there. Of more interest is the line going north from the long-forgotten Kachi Garhi Junction between Peshawar Cantt and Jamrud, which was the first attempt to reach the Afghan frontier. It ran up to Warsak on the Kabul river from approximately 1905 to 1907. This is probably the most obscure line which ever existed on the NWR.

While Kachi Garhi is difficult to find on the map now, it was known in recent years as a major camp for refugees from Afghanistan. Several members of Afghanistan’s cricket team have said that they learnt the game at this camp.

From contemporary sources, there was one train a day from Peshawar to Jamrud and another to Warsak. These were nicknamed the “Flying Afridi”. Some construction was in progress beyond Warsak in a western direction, when the project was abandoned and the existing lines pulled up in c.1907. More details about this aborted project can be seen here: http://www.andrewgrantham.co.uk/afghanistan/railways/kabul-river-and-khyber-pass/

You can also see various points betwen Jamrud and Landi Kotal, where the Khyber line was finally built in the mid-1920s

Lahore: Note Lahore Cantt (West) which is now Lahore Cantt, and Lahore Cantt (East) which is now Moghalpura. Also note the chord line connecting them, which must have been used for locos and rolling stock going to Moghalpura besides goods trains. Apparently this was not used by passenger services under normal circumstances.

The two stations mentioned above were recorded as Meean Meer East and Meean Meer West in older records.

Lucknow: The main station is indeed at Charbagh though the larger station buildings came up in the mid-1920s. The site of Dilkusha cabin is clearly seen.

Madras: Most of the main lines are in place, except the Korukkupet-Veysarpadi link. Note Moore Market which was the site of the suburban terminus much later. Also note the proximity of Park station to the jail. There was at least one instance in recent years where a group of prisoners scaled the wall and made their getaway by local trains. It was only after that that full-time police sentries were posted on the platforms.

Nuwara Eliya (Ceylon): The old narrow gauge line is seen here, though it closed in the 1940s.

Port Said (Egypt): It is here as most ships stopped here before entering the Suez Canal.

Red Sea: Again, it is here since most ships from Europe to South Asia stopped here. The stoppages included Port Said, Port Sudan and Aden. One can see that an enemy could easily disrupt shipping this area, particularly in the choke point of the Bab el-Mandeb.

South Asia: A good overview. If you know a bit of German, the legends in the top right and bottom left corners may be of interest. Not quite sure why they have added Ireland to this map.

The shipping routes to Bombay and Karachi are marked. Gwadar is just out of view here. It is often forgotten that it was an exclave of Oman and became part of Pakistan only in 1957.

Suez Canal: On the route. Look carefully for the railway running almost parallel to the west bank of the canal. Also note Ismailia, which is where airships were to stop on their way from Britain to Karachi. This did not materialize after the R-101 crashed in 1930. The giant airship hangar at Karachi remained in place until the 1960s. A small station called Airship Halt existed there at one time.

Tail piece: This is from my personal experience. In 1962 a typical route by an Indian-owned tramp cargo ship with multiple stops had this routing: London (Tilbury)-Rotterdam-Marseilles-Genoa-Port Said-Port Sudan-Aden-Bombay. That took 35 days including 2-3 days at each port. Some cargo ships (like the one we traveled in) had limited passenger accommodation.