Oddities in station signs in India-2

Continuing from this earlier post:


Today we look at two station signs which are in 5 languages. 4-language signs are relatively common, particularly in states such as Telangana.

The better-known one is a district town in Karnataka:

Raichur station-5 languages

Being close to Telangana, it has Telugu as well as Kannada and Urdu.

If you travel from Raichur towards Mumbai, you will soon come to Krishna station, which is in Telangana just north of the Krishna river which appears to be the state border here:


Photo credits: Sudarshan (sorry I didn’t get your full name).

More details here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krishna_railway_station

There may be a few more 5-language signs in India, though these are the only ones generally known.

This may also be of interest:



India vs Zimbabwe ODI records

With the conclusion of India’s 3-0 sweep, India and Zimbabwe have played a total of 63 ODIs. India lead 51-10 with 2 ties. Results at different venues are summed up below:

Results summary

Zimbabwe has had its moments, particularly when they beat India during the 1999 World Cup. On that occasion India and Zimbabwe both qualified for the Super Six but did not proceed further.

Looking at batting records:

Most runs (500 and above):

Runs-above 500

Tendulkar and Ganguly have almost the same total runs scored. No one from recent years has crossed 500 runs.

The most centuries are 5 by Tendulkar and 3 by Ganguly. For fifty-plus scores, Andy Flower has 12 and Campbell has 11. Ganguly and Tenulkar have 10 each.

Highest individual scores (100 and above):

Scores above 100

No one needs to be reminded about the top score, which was also India’s first ODI hundred. The second place goes to the lesser-known of the Mongias. Andy Flower has the highest for Zimbabwe. There are several centuries among current players, including KL Rahul on his ODI debut.

Highest average (minimum 20 innings batted):

Batting average

Tendulkar, Ganguly and Andy Flower have the top spots. No current players.

Highest strike rate (minimum 500 balls faced):

Strike rate

Here we have Yuvraj Singh at the top. From current players there is only Rayudu.

Now for bowling.

Most wickets (10 and above):

Wickets above 10

The popular whipping-boy Agarkar is on top here, followed by Streak.

Best innings bowling (4wi and above):

Bowling-4wi and above

A Mishra and HH Streak have the best figures for their teams. JJ Bumrah has two 4-wicket hauls in the recent series.

Best bowling averages (minimum 1000 balls bowled):

Bowling average

Only three bowlers make the cut here. Agarkar has the best average, Kumble the best economy and Agarkar the best strike rate.

Now for fielding:

Most dismissals (10 and above):

Dismissals-10 and above

Andy Flower and Rahul Dravid have the most dismissals for their teams, with Dravid serving as a keeper in some matches.

The most stumpings are 5 by Andy Flower and Nayan Mongia, most catches by a keeper 21 by Andy Flower, and most catches by a fielder 20 by Campbell.

The most dismissals in an innings are 5 by Kirmani and Nayan Mongia, while for fielders it is 4 by VVS Laxman.

Highest dismissal rate (minimum 20 innings fielded):

Dismissal rate

Andy Flower tops again, while Azharuddin has the highest rate for fielders.

Now for all-round performances:

Overall (minimum 20 innings batted and 1000 balls bowled):

AR overall

Heath Streak is the only one who has put in enough batting and bowling to qualify. Some prominent all-rounders like Kapil did not play enough in this series.

Looking at all-round performances in a match (30 runs and 3 wickets):


Ganguly and Crocker seem to have the best performances.

Summary of all T20Is between India and Sri Lanka

With the conclusion of the recent series which India won 2-1, India now leads Sri Lanka 5-4 in this format. The summary of results of all these 9 matches:

Ind-SL T20 summary

Not much of a data set, but we do our customary run through all statistics of matches in this format between these countries.

Overall batting (total of 75 runs and above):

Ind-SL overall batting

Sangakkara and Raina scored the most runs. Raina and Dhoni are the only ones to play all the 9 matches, while Dilshan and a few others have played in 8.

Sangakkara has scored 3 fifties and Kohli 2. No one else has scored more than one.

Looking at highest innings scores (40 and above):

Ind-SL indiv scores

Sangakkara and Kohli have the highest scores. In the present series there was only one fifty, by Dhawan.

Highest batting averages (minimum 5 innings batted):

Ind-SL batting averages

Raina and Kapugedera head this list. And the highest strike rates are by Kapugedera (155.88) followed by Gambhir (151.11)

Now to bowling.

Overall bowling (4 wickets and above):

Ind-SL overall bowling

Ashwin (11) and newcomer Chameera (5) have taken the most wickets for their teams.

Best innings bowling (3wi and above)

Ind-SL best bowling

Ashwin achieved the best bowling figures in the last match of this series. Earlier in the series Shanaka and Rajitha achieved the best bowling figures for Sri Lanka against India.

Bowling averages (minimum 5 innings bowled):

Ind-SL bowling average

Ashwin has by far the best bowling average (though the next one is more surprising). Ashwin also has the best economy rate and strike rate.

Now for fielding.

Most dismissals (2 and above):

Ind-SL overall fielding

Dhoni has the most dismissals (8) followed by Raina with 5, which is the most for a non-keeper. Dhoni also has the most stumpings (3).

Most dismissals in an innings (2 and above):

Ind-SL match dismissals

Dhoni has once taken 3 dismissals (1 c, 2 st) while several non-keepers have taken 2 catches in an innings.

Best dismissal rate (0.250 and above)

Ind-SL dismissal rate

Dhoni and Raina head the list, and M. Jayawardene has the best rate for Sri Lanka

Overall all-round figures:

Ind-SL overall allround

Raina is the only one who qualifies with these modest criteria.

Best all-round figures in a match (minimum 20 runs and 2 wickets):

Ind-SL match allround

Clearly Yuvraj has the best figures here, followed by Ashwin.


Review of all ODIs between Australia and India

With India’s consolation win, Australia won the series 4-1 to make a total of 123 ODIs between the two countries. The results are summarized below. Although these teams have played a tied Test, there are no tied ODIs between them.

Summary of ODIs

Australia maintain a lead in all categories of venue.

First we look at the top run scorers (750 and above):


Several current Indian players can be seen above. The most centuries are 9 by Tendulkar and 6 by Ponting. The most 50-plus scores are 24 by Tendulkar and 15 by Ponting.

And the highest individual scores (125 and above):

Batting-indiv score

RG Sharma recorded India’s highest individual score (171*) against Australia in Australia during this series at Perth. And SPD Smith returned the compliment (Australia vs India in Australia) with 149 in the same match.

The highest batting averages (35 and above) for those who batted in a minimum of 20 innings:

Batting average

The highest strike rates are 99.66 by Harbhajan (though he scored only 296 runs), 99.26 by Gilchrist and 97.66 by Kohli (both in the table above).

Now for bowling: highest wicket takers (20 and above)


Brett Lee is far ahead of the rest. He has the most 5-fors (4) while no one else has more than one. He also has the most 4+ wicket hauls with 4, followed by Agarkar and Johnson with 3.

Best innings bowling (5wi and above):

Bowling-best innings

Only one from the current series, KW Richardson at the bottom. And the table is headed by two lesser-known players.

Best bowling averages (for those who bowled in a minimum of 20 innings):

Bowling averages

Brett Lee again leads by a large margin.

The best economy rate is 3.67 by Kapil, followed by 3.80 by Shastri and 4.12 by McDermott.

The best strike rate is 28.0 by Brett Lee, followed by 29.1 by Agarkar and 30.7 by Johnson.

Fielding: Most dismissals (12 and above):

Most dismissals

No surprises as to the top places. The most stumpings is 12 by Dhoni, and most catches by non-keepers 31 by Tendulkar. Note the dual role of Dravid.

The most dismissals in an innings is 6 by Gilchrist on two occasions. The record for catches by a non-keeper is 4 by Clarke.

Highest dismissal rate (for those who fielded in 20 or more innings):

Best fielding average

Note that DM Jones and Kohli have the highest averages for non-keepers.

Overall all-round performance (based on somewhat arbitrary criteria):

Overall all-round

Probably one can tighten the criteria and get something more meaningful.

All-round match performances: minimum 30 runs and 3 wickets:

All-round match

Tendulkar’s feat would probably be the best, followed by those of Watson (Hyderabad), GS Chappell and Kapil. Note the rare example of bowling by Azharuddin.



Review of India-South Africa Tests

After India concluded its 3-0 victory with a record 337-run win, a total of 33 Tests have been played between the two countries. Overall, South Africa leads 13-10 with 10 draws.

In India, India leads 8-5 with 3 draws, while in South Africa the hosts lead 8-2 with 7 draws. India had earlier won 2-1 in 1996-97 and 1-0 in 2004-05 but are yet to win a series in SA. The best they managed was 1-1 in 2010-11.

We now look at statistics for all Tests between these two countries.


Most runs (500 and more):

I v SA most runs

Fittingly, Tendulkar and Kallis scored almost the same number of runs, the most centuries (7 each) and even the most scores above 50 (12 each).

Highest individual scores (150 and more):

I v SA indiv scores

However, it is Sehwag and Amla who have the highest individual scores.

Highest averages (minimum 20 innings batted):

I v SA best avg

Kallis is far ahead of everyone else. You can also see that Sehwag has the highest strike rate.


Most wickets (20 and above):

I v SA bowling

Kumble and Steyn have the most wickets for their countries and these records should stand for a long time. Steyn has the most fivers (5) while several have taken one tenner each. And SA seemed to be Sreesanth’s favourite opponents.

Best innings bowling (6 or more wickets):

I v SA innings bowling

The record stands with Klusener who achieved this on debut. These remained his career-best innings figures, and he was considered more as a batting all-rounder for most of his career. Ashwin took over the Indian record from Harbhajan during this series.

Best match bowling (8 or more wickets):

I v SA match bowling

Here, too, Ashwin took over the Indian record in this series. But Donald’s figures from the first series remain the SA record.

We now look at

Bowling averages (minimum 2000 balls bowled):

I v SA bowling avg

Kallis is not in this list as he did not bowl enough against India. Donald and Pollock lead the averages. Pollock also has the best economy rate (2.26) and Steyn the best strike rate (41.5). We might expect Ashwin and Jadeja to be high on these lists once they have bowled enough to qualify.


Most dismissals (15 and more):

I v SA fielding dismissals

Boucher has the most dismissals, while Kallis has the most among the non-keepers. Also note de Villiers’s double act as a keeper and fielder.

Best dismissal ratio (for 20 or more innings fielded):

I v SA fielding ratio

Boucher and Dhoni lead the table, while GC Smith leads the non-keepers though “hybrid” de Villiers is above him.

All-round performance (overall):

I v SA allround

With these criteria Kallis does not qualify due to less bowling, so Pollock heads the list.

All-round performance (match)-minimum 50 runs and 5 wickets.

I v SA match allround

Oddly enough Kallis does not figure here either. Probably Boje and Philander have the best match performances.

India is not playing Tests for a while, but the cricket statisticians hardly get to rest.



Spotlight on the Arakkonam airfield

Arakkonam (formerly Arkonam) is well known to railway followers because it is an important junction as well as electric loco shed, but has recently come into prominence because the inundation of Chennai airport caused some commercial flights to be operated from there. To be precise, this is the NAS (Naval Air Station) at Arakkonam which the Navy calls INS Rajali.

Most basic information can be seen here:


Although it started off as an IAF base in the 1940s, it was abandoned soon after WW2 and was reactivated for the long-range reconnaissance aircraft of the Navy during the late 1980s. The TU-142s and now the Poseidon P-8s have made good use of the 4.1 km runway which has been claimed to be the longest military runway in Asia.

Here you can see the locations of Chennai international airport (MAA), IAF Tambaram and INS Rajali marked with the small gold stars.

Chennai area

One can see that INS Rajali is about 50 km west of MAA, while IAF Tambaram is only 10 km away. At least there is no chance of a confused airline pilot landing his 747 at INS Rajali by mistake, though this has happened once at Tambaram in recent years.

Here is a closer view of INS Rajali:

INS Rajali

Though it is not very clearly shown, the railway line from Chengalpattu runs along the highway right by the boundary wall of the base. The Railways have been planning to electrify this section for a long time but the Navy have objected to the presence of the traction equipment being an obstacle to the flight path. Thus an alternative line is being built further from the airfield, but this seems to have dragged on for several years. This new line is not shown in the map. Meanwhile  the diesel-hauled trains continue to run past the base.

This is not the first time that military airfields have been used a a backup. Sulur for Coimbatore and Avantipur for Srinagar are other examples. The inaugural flight of Jet Airways to Coimbatore did land at Sulur by mistake. Apart from the Saudia 747 which wrongly landed at Tambaram, there have been several incidents including a mid-air collision and another which totalled a DC-8 which were caused by the proximity of BOM to Juhu. More about these later.

With all these movements of heavy aircraft, it is fortunate that this airfield has not seen a major aviation accident yet. However, India’s experimental AWACS on an Avro frame did crash a few km away in 1999, apparently putting an end to DRDO’s efforts in that direction.

The longest railway tunnels in India

The list of long railway tunnels in India has seen considerable changes in the last quarter century.

We start with the Wikipedia article as it was on Nov 16, 2015:

List of rail tunnels in India by length
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of the longest rail tunnels in India. In considering tunnels for this section, tunnels of underground metro railways have not been counted. Only tunnels on the main Indian Railways network longer than 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) have been listed.



Most of the tunnels listed below are located in the Western Ghats, the only mountain range in the country that has good railway connectivity. There are longer tunnels that are under construction in the Himalayas in Jammu & Kashmir, as part of the USBRL Project.Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel, the 11.2 km long railway tunnel, passes through the Pir Panjal Range of middle Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir. It is a part of its Udhampur – Srinagar – Baramulla rail link project, India’s longest railway tunnel and reduced the distance between Quazigund and Banihal .[1]

The list

Sl. No Name Length km Station Station State Divisions Year Coordination
1. Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel 11,215 metres (36,795 ft) Banihal Hillar Shahabad Jammu and Kashmir Northern Railway 2013 33.5617942°N 75.1988626°E
2. Karbude (T-35) 6,506 metres (21,345 ft) Ukshi Bhoke Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 17°6′9″N 73°24′59″E
3. Nathuwadi (T-6) 4,389 metres (14,400 ft) Karanjadi Diwan Khavati Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 17°53′37″N 73°23′14″E
4. Tike (T-39) 4,077 metres (13,376 ft) Ratnagiri Nivasar Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 16°58′48″N 73°23′42″E
5. Berdewadi (T-49) 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) Adavali Vilawade Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 16°53′43″N 73°36′22″E
6. Savarde (T-17) 3,429 metres (11,250 ft) Kamathe Savarde Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 17°27′35″N 73°31′19″E
7. Barcem (T-73) 3,343 metres (10,968 ft) Balli Canacona Goa Konkan Railway 1997 15°3′49″N 74°1′54″E
8. Karwar (T-80) 2,950 metres (9,680 ft) Karwar Harwada Karnataka Konkan Railway 1997
9. Chowk (T-3) 2,830 metres (9,280 ft) Panvel Karjat Maharashtra Central Railway 2006 18°55′5″N 73°17′10″E
10. Parchuri (T-27) 2,628 metres (8,622 ft) Sangameshwar Ukshi Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 17°9′30″N 73°28′57″E
11. Khowai (T-2) 2,472 metres (8,110 ft) Mungiabari Teliamura Tripura Northeast Frontier Railway 2008
12. Sangar (T-4) 2,445 metres (8,022 ft) Sangar Manwal Jammu and Kashmir Northern Railway 2005
13. Monkey Hill (T-25C) 2,156 metres (7,073 ft) Karjat Khandala Maharashtra Central Railway 1982
14. Aravali (T-21) 2,100 metres (6,900 ft) Aravali Sangameshwar Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997
15. Chiplun (T-16) 2,033 metres (6,670 ft) Chiplun Kamathe Maharashtra Konkan Railway 1997 17°29′45″N 73°31′50″E
16. Saranda(T-1) 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) Goilkera Sarenda Halt Jharkhand South Eastern Railway 1900 25°00′00″N 85°30′45″E

The alert Mumbaikar may ask “What about the Parsik tunnel?” It is only 1.3 km long and thus fails to qualify for the 2-km cutoff in the above list. It was not even the longest rail tunnel in India when it was opened in 1916, as the longer Saranda tunnel was already open since 1900. In undivided India the 3.92 km long Khojak tunnel in Baluchistan had been opened in 1892; for more details see :


This was in fact the longest rail tunnel in South Asia until the Konkan Railway opened in the late 1990s. As you can see from the above list, the majority of the long tunnels are on the Konkan route. The longest is the Karbude tunnel at 6.5 km. Some other longer tunnels opened in recent years the Sangar tunnel (2.4 km) on the Jammu-Udhampur section and the slightly longer Khowai tunnel on the Karimganj-Agartala section which is currently under conversion from MG to BG.

However, the longest tunnel on IR is the 11.2 km long Pir Panjal tunnel between Banihal and Qazigund which provides a link between Jammu and Srinagar. More details can be seen here:


Opened in 2013, it will be part of the main route into the Kashmir valley once the problem-ridden section between Katra and Banihal is completed in the next few years. At the moment it serves a number of DMU passenger trains between Banihal and Baramulla (though some run only upto Budgam just north of Srinagar). These trains seem to be popular with the local people at the Banihal end as they save a lot of time and distance compared to the road route between Banihal and Qazigund. And the rail route is far less likely to be disrupted by snow than the road route.

It is likely to be the longest rail tunnel in India for a long time to come. There is expected to be a 7-km long tunnel on the uncompleted Katra-Banihal section which would take over the second spot from the Karbude tunnel. It will still exceed the two long road tunnels under construction at the Rohtang Pass and Patnitop, although the latter would also result in a considerable saving in distance on the Udhampur-Banihal road route:

“A 9.2 km long tunnel (Chenani-Nashri Tunnel) is being constructed about 2 km from Chenani town. The tunnel will be the India’s longest road tunnel when completed. It will reduce the distance from Chenani to Nashri by 31 km and reduce traffic jams on NH-1A that occur due to snowfall and avalanche in winter at Patnitop. About 2 km of the tunnel had been excavated by April 2012,[4] about 50% of the length had been excavated by January 2013.[5] and the excavation was completed in July 2015. The road in the tunnel may open in the second half of 2016.

In addition to the main road tunnel, there will be a smaller parallel escape tunnel for emergency services and extraction of smoke and persons in case of fire and accident.

The Southern portal (end) of the tunnel is at 33.0463°N 75.2793°E and the Northern portal (end) of the tunnel is at coordinates 33.1285°N 75.2928°E. When the tunnel is completed, the highway will no longer pass through Patnitop. The tunnel will reduce the length of the highway by 31 km and the highway will bypass Patnitop.”