It is easy enough to get the full figures of Test captains from Statsguru:
Those who captained for 35 or more Tests:
And it is easy enough to find those who were non-captains in the most Tests:
Those who played 100 or more Tests as non-captains:
While Tendulkar, Kallis and Chanderpaul did captain their team in some Tests, there are others (starting with Warne) who never captained at all. We now take a closer look at this category:
Those who played 80 or more Tests without ever captaining their teams:
SK Warne leads here with 144, with JM Anderson and VVS Laxman as runners-up. The highest for other Test teams are:
Sri Lanka-132 (M Muralitharan)
South Africa-101 (M Ntini)
West Indies-98 (CEL Ambrose)
New Zealand-86 (Sir RJ Hadlee)
Pakistan-76 (Mudassar Nazar)
Zimbabwe-67 (GW Flower)
Bangladesh-40 (Javed Omar)
In a few cases (e.g. Warne) they led their country in a few ODIs. Sometimes even that consolation was not there.
At the other end of the spectrum, there are a small number who captained their team in all their Tests. There are various reasons for this-mainly because only amateurs were considered suitable to lead England until Hutton in the 1950s. In the West Indies, the captaincy was restricted to those of European ancestry for the first few decades.
In some cases (notably SA) most players were inexperienced in the early years and there was a rapid turnover of players as well as captains. And there were strange cases like the Maharajdhirajkumar of Vizianagram which Indian cricket fans would know about.
So here is the full list of 24 players who captained their side in all their Tests:
The leader here is the long-forgotten South African Percy Sherwell of the early 20th century:
Interestingly, he was a wicket keeper-one of the few who played more than a handful of Tests as captain until Dhoni came along.
The only instance of “pure captains” in recent years was LK Germon of NZ in the mid-90s. He was also a wicket keeper. http://www.espncricinfo.com/ci/content/player/37101.html
We also see James Lillywhite jnr of England who captained his side in the first 2 Tests ever played and never played another, CA Smith who played one Test but carved out a career in Hollywood and N Betancourt who seems to be here because at that time (in the West Indies) the captain had to be from the territory where the Test was played.
Tail piece: LK Germon does possess an odd record-he has scored the most runs on debut without scoring a fifty: