From Journalism 101: “When a dog bites a man, it is not news.
When a man bites a dog, it is news”
Similarly: When Bangladesh loses a Test, it is not news.
When Bangladesh scores almost 600 and loses a Test, it is news.
Here is a list of instances where a side scored 500 or more and still lost a Test:
It can be seen that Bangladesh now has the record score in a loss, surpassing the 586 by Australia well over a century ago.
All of these instances came in the first or second innings of the match, except for the 510 by India in 1967. That was in a follow-on, and the Test is remembered partly for Pataudi’s 64 and 148 and more for Boycott being dropped for excessively slow scoring on the way to his Test best of 246*: http://www.espncricinfo.com/ci/engine/match/63004.html
We also look at scores of 450 or more in the 3rd and 4th inning in losses:
The highest 3rd-innings score in a loss is 510 as mentioned above. For the 4th innings it is 451 by NZ in 2001-02, which Pakistan just failed to cross earlier this season.
Taking another look at the scorecard of Bangladesh’s recent loss:
We see that Bangladesh’s innings included 217 by Shakib, which is the highest Test individual score for Bangladesh. The only other double centuries are 206 by Tamim and 200 by Mushfiqur. Incidentally, Shakib is one of the few to score a double century and duck in the same Test (regardless of the result). The highest such score is 245 by Shoaib Malik vs England in 2015-16.
There are, however, many instances of double centuries being scored in innings of sides losing Tests:
The record continues to be with RT Ponting with 242. Other greats including Lara, Graeme Pollock, Harvey and Hayden also appear here.
All of these efforts came in the first or second innings except for Astle’s 222 which figured in New Zealand’s 451 mentioned above:
We also look at individual scores of 175 and above in the 3rd and 4th innings for losing teams:
The highest such score in the 3rd innings is 199* by Andy Flower. Numerous other well-known players also appear here.
An afterthought-we look at combined scores in both innings by a batsman in a losing side:
Although there are numerous instances of centuries in both innings of a lost Test, Lara is the only one to make a double century and a century. Andy Flower just missed it with his 142 and 199*. Also note Ponting’s 242 and 0.