There was much fine batting on display in the recent Test between Bangladesh and Pakistan at Khulna, as we can see here:
A minor point of interest was Soumya Sarkar getting 33 in both innings on debut. One would wonder if this is the highest such instance. It is not, though it has come close to the Test record of 36 by the little-known Dan Taylor of South Africa: http://www.espncricinfo.com/ci/content/player/47533.html
He did have a famous brother in Herb Taylor who captained South Africa.
Here is the full list of batsmen making the same score in both innings on debut. The list is surprisingly long, mostly populated by pairs of zeroes and other low scores. After Dan Taylor, S. Abid Ali and Soumya Sarkar follow with 33 in both innings. Abid Ali also took 6-55 and a total of 7 wickets in the match.
If you look at scores above 50, the nearest approach is 65 and 67* by SM Gavaskar (1971) and 59 and 57 by Dilawar Hussain (1934). A few others are separated by 4 or 5 runs, the highest being 82 and 78* by CH Lloyd (1966).
Also note the numerous batsmen of note who failed to score in their first test, such as Ramchand, Gooch, Rutherford, Atapattu, Saeed Anwar as well as other prominent players such as Valentine, Wasim Akram, Allan Donald and Malinga.